Tag Archives: golang interview

Maps internals in Go

Idea Map is passed as a value, but it consists of a pointer to hmap which has all the details on map implementation. So, if you change/add to map, it will be reflected everywhere. And that’s why you cannot assign to an uninitialized map (no memory allocated, no hash seed generated yet). runtime/map.go

Buckets …

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Docker and Kubernetes basics for developers

Docker Docker containers are much more lightweight compared to classic VMs as they leverage host OS instead of starting their own OS. Containers are using 2 features of Linux-based OS: Namespaces and Cgroups (Control Groups). Namespace Lets you allocate resources in an isolated environment (like a sandbox). On a container start, docker daemon generates a …

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Go’s Concurrency and Channel Internals

Go is implementing CSP (Communicating Sequential Processing): processes are communicating through channels, they can block each other while waiting for read/writes to channels. Actor model makes inter-process communications more explicit and non-blocking. CSP vs Actor explained — https://dev.to/karanpratapsingh/csp-vs-actor-model-for-concurrency-1cpg. Channels requirements goroutine-safe store and pass data across goroutines FIFO can block/unblock goroutines

Go scheduler details

Scheduler was implemented by Dmitry Vyukov in go 1.1 and lives in runtime/proc.go. Good resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-K11rY57K7k — video by Dmitry Vyukov (slides as pdf) https://www.ardanlabs.com/blog/2018/08/scheduling-in-go-part2.html — nice article by Bill Kennedy in 3 parts. Most of the images below are taken from this article. Main ideas Goroutines are very light weight (~2KB+) and very cheap …

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Go memory hints

Below hints are related to very hot places of CPU/memory bound programs. And in regular (i/o bound) programs do not make much sense. Stack vs heap Go’s compiler goal is to allocate on the stack as much as possible. As it will reduce the amount of data that needs to be cleaned by the Garbage …

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How golang garbage collection works

It is a Mark-and-Sweep GC. Phases Mark Stop-the-World: Set write barrier (to know how much was allocated during maark phase) Concurrent: Mark all memory which is still in use by the app Stop-the-World: Remove write barrier Concurrent: Sweep (it actually happens on new allocations) Details/Algorithm It’s a tri-color process: grey for objects to check, black …

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